Fun with 3D2EU and XR0YD…

Posted: March 17, 2018 in Uncategorized


The 3D2EU Team on Rotuma Island.

I really had fun with the 3D2EU and XR0YD DXpeditions that have just concluded. I was a member of the 2011 3D2R Rotuma Island team so I actually needed 3D2EU Rotuma contacts in my logs. The 3D2EU team did a great job despite poor propagation at times. Their primary goal was to work EU stations and I hope they feel that they achieved their goal. The operators were superb and for such a small team they really covered the bands well. Rotuma Island is the closest place to paradise that I can imagine and the local villagers are very nice and hospitable. I have such fond memories of that adventure.


The XR0YD Team on Easter Island

Easter Island was activated by a German team as XR0YD. Even with poor propagation, I was able to work them 10-160 meters. As with 3D2EU, the XR0YD team are very skilled operators and managed their pileups very well. They also made good use of propagation. Both of these DXpeditions also operated on FT8 which added to the fun!

So here we are in the bottom of the sunspot cycle and we are able to enjoy well run DXpeditions to rare and remote places. My thanks to these teams for some great fun on the bands!

What do you think?


Paul N6PSE

An abundance of DX!

Posted: March 6, 2018 in Uncategorized


As I write this, the 9M0W team is making their way to Lang Lang Island from Kota Kimbalu Malaysia. They plan to be QRV from March 6-13th. This one counts as Spratly!

The TN5R team is also on their way to the Republic of the Congo where they will be QRV from March 9th to March 19th. They have dedicated their DXpedition in memory of David-K3LP.


As these two operations get started, we can continue to enjoy making contacts with 4B4B and XR0YD.

Lastly, I am thrilled that the 3Y0Z Bouvet team has announced that they will make another attempt to activate Bouvet.

What a great time to be a DXer!

What do you think?


Paul N6PSE

FT8 is really fun!

Posted: February 28, 2018 in Uncategorized


WSJT-X running FT8 with the waterfall on top and the contact area below.

FT8 is the latest digital mode taking amateur radio by storm. The WSJT-X free software enables amateurs to work JT4, JT9, JT65, QRS64, ISCAT, MSK144 and WSPR in addition to FT8.
FT8 is by far the most popular and fun to use mode of the WSJT-X Software set. FT8 is a low power, extremely efficient mode. Instead of using “brute force” to make a contact such as the case with RTTY, FT8 is a mode where understanding and finesse achieve the best results. FT8 is relatively new and is constantly being improved with new releases coming almost monthly.


The main benefit to FT8 is that with a small low power station, you can work stations all around the globe with little difficulty. In fact, in a period of just two days, I was able to work over 100 entities just on FT8.

I find FT8 fun and relaxing to use. Once you understand the layout of the software, you can merely click on a station calling CQ. Your software will continue to call that station until a connection is made. Then there is an automatic exchange of signal reports, an acknowledgement and 73.

Its kind of fun to answer a CQ and then go fill the coffee cup only to return minutes later and see that you made a contact with the station. Some internet naysayers feel that FT8 is going to harm the hobby and possibly reduce the use of CW. I think FT8 is just one more tool or feature to use and have fun with amateur radio.

You can learn more about FT8 and download the free WSJT-X software here:


This is your confirmation pop-up when a contact is made. 

Enjoy FT8, its here to stay!


What do you think?


Paul N6PSE

More Humanitarian Hams…

Posted: February 24, 2018 in Uncategorized


I’ve written in the past about Humanitarian Hams such as Zorro-JH1AJT and Tony-EA5RM. I have been following the recent travels and activities of Ken Opskar-LA7GIA. Ken has been incorporating a humanitarian aspect into each of his recent DXpeditions, including his most recent operation from Puntland, Somalia as 6O6O. He and Adrian-KO8SCA made nearly 17,000 contacts during a period of very poor propagation.

What is most impressive is that they have raised nearly $11,000 and will be donating it to Doctors without Borders working in Somalia. This is a very noble cause and I am really impressed with what they are doing.

What do you think?


Paul N6PSE

My thoughts on 3Y0Z…

Posted: February 6, 2018 in Uncategorized


My heart goes out to the 3Y0Z team as they make their voyage to Cape Town. I know what it feels like to abort a long planned Dxpedition just on the eve of success. I know the heart ache and the financial pitfalls all too well.

In 2011, we cancelled our Dxpedition to Kabul, Afghanistan just hours after Osama Bin Laden was captured and killed. It took a year to get much of our equipment back from Afghanistan. The entire team lost our travel costs. We also lost a team member, Jim-WA2EWE who was killed in Kabul just a week before our arrival.

In 2016 we cancelled the P5DX Dxpedition to North Korea after buying and shipping our equipment to Beijing. That was a tough pill to swallow as we had made nine trips to the DPRK and had obtained valid permission and an invitation letter from the North Korean officials. The entire team again lost all of their travel costs. While painful, our losses were just a fraction of what the 3Y0Z team is to experience.

So, I have a pretty good grasp of the pain and disappointment that the 3Y0Z team is feeling. Now that they are returning to Cape Town instead of Chile, they will be at the mercy of cargo shippers and airlines as they try to book their return flights home. They will experience a logistical nightmare if they try to unload their gear in Cape Town and ship it back from there. Their return flights from Chile will most certainly be wasted adding further to their already mounting expenses.

I hope that the DX Community will continue to support their mission if they decide to mount another effort to activate Bouvet. And if they decide to recover financially and emotionally before starting another mission, I can fully understand that as well. I have the highest level of respect for these men. 3Y0Z had the potential to be the best DXpedition ever!

Best wishes and good luck to the 3Y0Z Team!

Paul N6PSE

New DXCC entity-Kosovo!

Posted: January 24, 2018 in Uncategorized


I’m glad that the ARRL DXCC staff has changed the DXCC rules which enables Kosovo to count for DXCC effective January 21, 2018. This is a very welcome change!

I visited Kosovo in 2012 and it is an interesting and unique place. Pristina is the Capitol of Kosovo. I’m glad that this new entity has citizens, land and active radio amateurs. As one of my friends said “enough of the SV/A and 4U1 type of entities!”


This sign greets you when you drive into Kosovo. 

Today, as I write my Blog, there are several stations QRV from Kosovo including Z60A the SHRAK station.

Here is a link to today’s announcement from the ARRL:

I’ve previously blogged about my views on Kosovo. You can see it here:


What do you think?

TEAM (1)

The J5T DXpedition Team on Bubaque Island.

Back home since just a few days, all Team members have resumed their normal occupations: some at work, some enjoying their retirement, others already pasting labels on QSL cards and preparing envelopes for mailing. Everything as usual at the end of our DXpeditions. Likewise, I find myself in front of my PC with the notes taken during the last 15 days, to tell you about the events in Guinea Bissau in November 2017.

The Kasa Afrikana was the venue for the J5T DXpedition.

It was the 11th of April 2016 when, after consulting with Silvano, I began corresponding with friends of the Verona DX Team. We had been considering to activate Guinea Bissau since some time, and after researching the web, we discovered that some Italians had been in that country years before. Our friends from Verona, in particular Lucio I3LDP and Libero IK3RBE, offered their help for licensing and organizing local logistics with the assistance of Father Gianfranco Gottardi J59OFM, who operates a humanitarian mission in Camura, near the Capital city Bissau.

The website of Father Gianfranco,, is an excellent source of information on his activities and provides references for sending help to the mission.
In August 2016 Father Gianfranco came to Italy, which gave us the opportunity to meet him and to deliver the documentation for the licensing process.

We were expecting simple steps and quick formalities, which led us to announce the Dxpedition for November of the same year. We did not take into account the then forthcoming political elections: as it is customary in many African countries, they imply a complete jam of the government offices for months, up to the final results. Skipping countless e-mail messages with Father Gianfranco and Libero IK3RBE, I can report that our license arrived as an Easter egg on 12 April 2017, exactly one year after the initial contacts with our friends from Verona.

We immediately initiated a search for a suitable location on the island of Bubaque, which we found at the Kasa Africana Hotel, a fishing club managed by a Frenchman who was aware of our needs having hosted another group of radio amateurs years before.
We settled on the price of transportation, boarding, generator, internet connections and security, but we had to accept a time window suitable for the hotel, which is rather small and almost completely booked by European sport fishermen. At this point Arturo IK7JWY, our pilot station, notifies the worldwide amateur community of our final plans for the period 13-26 November 2017.

This time our good friend Mac JA3USA cannot join the team because of family commitments. Nevertheless, he will be a constant presence throughout the Dxpedition with advice on the optimal time windows and frequencies for the narrow openings to Japan and the Far East.

Prior to each Dxpedition, we carefully test our equipment. For 48 hours we simulate the whole computer and server network including packet cluster, we carry out QSOs in RTTY, SSB and CW exercising our real-time online log system. We test all cables; all antennas and we prepare an analytical list of all equipment and parts stored in the various boxes. This time we added to our normal set of radios 2 amplifiers by Italab, an Italian firm producing since years solid-state amplifiers for broadcasting which has recently expanded its product line with amateur HF amplifiers.


J5T gear packed and ready for transport

After packing all equipment (with Silvano in charge) we reach our limit of 15 boxes.. We then prepare the custom papers and translate them into English, French and Portuguese, the latter being the most common language in Guinea Bissau as a former Portuguese colony.

As most of you know, the biggest challenges for a Dxpedition are licensing and customs. The first one was fine, but the second raised some anxieties. We knew that our friends of the MDXC active in 9U had been delayed by days owing to customs processing. Since it happened to them, why not to us? Nothing is simple in Africa, and after years of experience we are well aware of that.

Departure from Malpensa on the 12th, stopovers in Casablanca and Capo Verde, we then arrive at Bissau airport at 3:30 am on the 13th. Thanks to the accurate paperwork we get through customs in 30 minutes and, after a short drive by car, we board with our equipment a speedboat to the island of Bubaque in the African night. We are somewhat worried by having to navigate the Atlantic Ocean without radar, but after 2 hours we arrive safely at our destination. At sunrise we are already busy unpacking our equipment and setting up our stations.

Everything had been tested carefully, but Mr. Murphy hits once again. The first station, on RTTY, has a problem from the start: for reasons not understood yet, the PC/radio interface refuses to work.

After a full hour of trouble shooting, I give up and, to speed up preparations, I swap the interface with that of the SSB station, which is compatible with RTTY. All our stations are compatible and fully interchangeable, so that swapping components is a breeze. In the meantime, the CW station begins to operate, while for the SSB station we try to make use of the recalcitrant interface just for the CAT part: it works.

We then launch the well-tested online log by IH9GPI, but the firewall of our internet provider occasionally blocks some packets sent to our server in Italy. A call to Giacomo IH9GPI solves the problem: we cannot update each minute, we must update our log each 3 to 4 minutes. Not a big issue, even if some correspondents warn us of this delay. Did we pamper them too much over the years?

After the initial excitement, all goes well (for the moment) and we raise good pileups. The higher bands are not so productive, whereas the lower ones display a high level of activity (as implied by the current status of the propagation cycle).

However, as we reported many times, in Africa nothing should be taken for granted. In spite of being authorized to raise our antennas on the island, on the second morning we are visited by the local police ordering us to remove them. This is because the island governor, a supporter of the President of Guinea Bissau who is spending a few days in a neighboring hotel, had not been informed of our activity. Gino IK2RPZ clarifies that the incident occurred from a lack of communication by the Central Ministry, and is not our fault. After a few hours of discussions and a corresponding pause in our activity, all is clear and with relief we are allowed to continue handling the pileups.

Yet other problems are lurking, and quite a number of them. First of all, the line voltage which, in spite of all pledges, drops by tens of volt when loaded by our amplifiers. We remedy this with a second generator (and an unexpected increase in costs). At this point we believe that all stations can work at full power, but on the 4th day the new amplifiers display, almost simultaneously, the same problem: the antenna relays, recently upgraded by the manufacturer, Italab, fail to perform to specs and we have to rely on occasional blows to the cabinets to make them switch.

We inform Nico, the owner of Italab, who offers to ship, immediately by express courier at his own expenses, a set of new and improved replacements. Probably he has not fully realized where we are: the parcel would have never reached us in time. We opt for a sketchy solution by forcing the relay case with two toothbrushes with the aim of improving contacts…. a solution which works for just a few hours, but ultimately fails to a sad silence. The relays fail definitely and we are left with just the 500W amplifiers.
Since we have a combiner which allows to merge the output two amplifiers obtaining 1kW, we decide to operate the CW station during the night with 1kW and the SSB station at 500W output.

As for the RTTY station the power will be the barefoot 100W.
In the meantime, the computer for RTTY quits by generating a series of errors. After some checks, and in order to save precious operating time, I decide to re-format the PC memory and reinstall the software: a few hours break to ensure a smooth operation. Also in this case we are unable to identify the cause of the malfunction, since the configuration is the same as for the previous Dxpedition. Anyway, we are gratified by the nice final results of Gino IK2RPZ, with 3163 RTTY QSOs logged on the 20m band.

This year, we chose a different strategy for coping with duplicate contacts. Up to the last Dxpedition we worked everybody, irrespective of dupes; this time we minimized the number of dupes informing the correspondent that duplicate QSO would not be logged. By so doing, we reduced the number of dupes to a reasonable 1500; at any rate we fail to understand why somebody tries to work us 3 or even 4 times on the same band/mode. To this end, here is a little story: I happened to be considered incompetent in dealing with the pileup (yes, incompetent!) simply because I refused to work an OM (Italian!) requesting to be logged at his third duplicate QSO. Having 17 DXpeditions and more than 400,000 personal QSOs to my credit, I replied openly that he was nuts (actually with a stronger phrasing).

Let us return to the seemingly endless drawbacks of this Dxpedition: we realize that the SSB Spiderbeam antenna had developed a high SWR on 12 and 17meters. We disassemble the antenna, replaced the balun, checked measurements and connections, but to no avail: the antenna does not work.

At this point we modify the RTTY 20m Yagi, turning it into a tri-bander for 12, 17 and 20m. This is a solution, but once again we cannot understand the origin of the malfunction. However, low and behold, on the last two days the antenna reverts by itself to normal operation! When back in Italy, Silvano will undertake the task of repairing and testing this antenna.

During this Dxpedition the SSB station tested a new type of bow microphones, often used by artists and singers for their performances. At the beginning we spent a few minutes to equalize the audio response; after setting up we could appreciate their performance, small size and ease of use.


Gino-IK2RZP tests a new microphone.

Next time we shall take with us other models for tests under real conditions, in order to arrive at the final choice of an “Official IDT microphone”. We shall report our findings to the community, given the combined advantages of quality, sturdiness and small profile at a very moderate price. Keep an eye on our website.

Never say “never” in Africa… Another unexpected problem arose from strong interference between the CW and SSB stations, although they were located at quite some distance from each other. After excluding a negative effect of the local grounding system at the resort, we shifted our attention to radios and amplifiers. Given the interchangeability of the components we swapped them, but it did not help. Finally, we had to accept the situation and the SSB station suffered substantially from the CW manipulation when receiving weak signals.

local woman

A local woman cooking food.

As a final measure, in order to maximize the QSO rate, we decided to operate all 3 stations on CW. This was the novelty of this Dxpedition: both Gino IK2RZP and myself IK2HKT operating CW for many hours each day. Obviously, we could not even approach the proficiency in handling pileups of Angelo, Alfeo and Vinicio, but with a little humbleness and intensive use of the F7 key (‘?’) we managed to log a few thousand QSOs. We are sorry for those who had to repeat their calls 2 or 3 times, but we did our very best and, in the end, we even enjoyed it!

As is common for all DXpeditions, time for the official photo. Silvano I2YSB practiced at home with his new drone, shooting images from new views in order to enrich the expedition DVD with special effects. But once again he forgot to take Africa into account … You may not believe it, but parallel to our hotel and next to it there was a landing strip, a dirt one but nevertheless reported on aeronautical charts. As a consequence, the area surrounding it is a no-fly zone. Obviously, Silvano’s drone being a last-generation type, it simply did not work close to a forbidden area. So, months of preparations and planning ended in storing the drone back in its casing, postponing its use to the next Dxpedition. This was really unexpected!


The J5T SSB and RTTY stations.

The days go by quickly, and the numbers of contacts on the various bands rise to important values. The major part is from the low bands, with 160m closing at 2500 QSOs, 80m above 5000 and 40m above 8000, of which half on SSB. Strong signals from both Europe and USA; in the middle of the night West Coast hams were sounding like locals. Some regret for the Japanese: apart from good openings in the morning on 20m long-path, the other bands were not as good, as expected from propagation forecasts.

The worst issue was still to come on the last nights of the Dxpedition. At around 4 a.m. Silvano was alone in the SSB/RTTY shack, taking at times a short nap. An unknown person entered through the window and stole, in succession, Stefano’s smartphone on the first night and the two smartphones of Silvano on the second. On the first occurrence Silvano did not notice, while on the second night he was awakened by the thief and ran after him without being able to avoid the loss of his phones.

This event was reported to the authorities, having in mind a possible collusion on the part of the guards whom we had paid in advance for our protection. In the end, we could not recover our phones, which contained movies and pictures now irretrievably lost. It was a great pity, also because the local population is warm and nice, everybody greets you with a smile and the atmosphere is very friendly. In no way this unsettling mishap can modify the nice overall impression we got in Guinea Bissau.

Anyway, our morale was restored by Gino who, being a proficient fisher, left the RTTY position and went fishing what would be our last dinner there. Countless and tasty fishes which made us forget that nasty experience. As for myself, being allergic to fish, I had to limit my dinner to a meagre salad with eggs. I shall make up for it at the next Dxpedition!
On the last day we concentrated on disassembling the antennas and equipment. After that, we decided to take some rest on a deserted island at some 30 minutes from Bubaque. There we rested our ears, tried to fish (unsuccessfully), enjoyed the environment and prepared our return trip.

We take off from Bissau on 27 November at 4 a.m.; after a stopover in Casablanca we arrive in Italy at 4 p.m. on the same day. We land at Malpensa airport, tired but happy: 63635 QSOs (of which more than 20,000 uniques) from a country down at the 111th place in the most wanted list, and well into the solar minimum, is quite a success. When comparing this achievement with the result of our last Dxpedition which netted 63155 contacts from the Central African Republic, ranking 93rd among the most wanted countries, we are very satisfied. Maybe the overall ATNOs are not a big number, but at least we are confident that many OMs could finally fill in some missing and long-awaited band/mode contacts.


The J5T DXpedition QSL Card.

As usual, information for QSLing on the Dxpedition website at

See you on our next Dxpedition!
73, Stefano IK2HKT


Silvano-I2YSB and his amazing Italian DXpedition Team has just concluded their J5T operation from Guinea Bissau. What an impressive and fun activation of this African Country!

In their typical style, they came on as announced with a flurry of activity  from 10-160 meters. Many of us were particularly delighted with their 80/160 meter effort night after night for the duration of their operation. Their pileups were massive, often 8-10 Kc wide as an indicator of the pent up demand for contacts on these bands.

The J5T Team members are amazing operators skillfully working and getting complete calls with skill and finesse that we have come to appreciate from them. Silvano-I2YSB and his team are among the best, most skilled and fun DXpedition teams to work and they really met the demand and exceeded many of our expectations with this activation. I was particularly thrilled to work them on 80/160 meters which were new bands for me.

The Italian DXpedition Team is largely self funded. They rarely have contributions before their activation and I can tell you with some experience that operating for several weeks in Africa does not come cheap!  So when you make your J5T QSL request, be sure to donate something extra to help the Italian DXpedition Team make their next activation.

What do you think?

Fun on 160 meters…

Posted: November 27, 2017 in Uncategorized

I’ve really been having fun on 160 meters lately. My station’s capabilities has been improved with the implementation of a 60′ tall inverted L to replace the 80/160 dipole. I am using three elevated radials.

In the run up before this weekends CQ WW CQ contest, I worked P40W, TI5/KL9A, PZ5V, PJ4/DL5LYM, YN2CC, C6AGU, ZF9CW, LU8DPM, FG/F6ARC and TO2SP. In the weeks previous, I worked J5T, VP2MDL, 6Y1LZ, KL7RA, KH7M, VY2ZM, PJ4K and V26B all on “Top Band”. I tried really hard to work VK9MA on 160 but they just couldn’t hear me.

I think 160 meters is probably the most challenging of bands to work. The conditions fluctuate from night to night and sometimes hour by hour. Most of the signals are weak and subject to deep fading. I typically call when I can hear them well and I listen when they fade in and out.

Top Band is also called the “Gentleman’s Band” for the predominance of civility and regard for others. There is less rudeness and out of turn calling on this band and that makes it a little more enjoyable.

As I am having fun with this band, I think I will stick with it for a while and see where it takes me.

What do you think?


When planning a DXpedition, one of the many things that the leader worries about is bad luck in the form of poor propagation. I remember vividly during April 2010 when my YI9PSE team was operating from Erbil, Iraq.

Our primary goal was to work the US West Coast and to provide as many ATNO’s as possible. Propagation was cruel to us bringing a CME during the middle of the nine day DXpedition. We experienced nearly complete “black out” conditions during that week and our goal to work the West Coast was not satisfied to the level that we had hoped for.

This past week, poor propagation struck the VK9MA and 9U4M DXpeditions. According to the Solarham website, it’s been a dreadful week for propagation. The nine member of the VK9MA team made just over 43,000 contacts. I listened to their pileups and I know this team made every effort to overcome the poor propagation and fill their logs.

The 22 member 9U4M DXpedition team faced similar challenges. They made 54,955 contacts in ten days of operating. 68.8% of their contacts were with EU stations as they were largely difficult to reach from other continents.

For those amateurs that tend to “beat up” a DXpedition for having not met the amateur’s expectations, I would just suggest that unless you have joined a DXpedition and have sat on a dead band for hours calling CQ, you just really have no idea how difficult it can be to make the contacts necessary to satisfy the global need.

Lets hope that conditions improve for the upcoming 3Y0Z and St. Brandon DXpeditions.

What do you think?